## C Tutorial For The Beginners With Example And Source Code

# C programming examples for beginners

## C programming codes

- Hello world
- Print Integer
- Addition
- Odd or Even
- Add, subtract, multiply and divide
- Check vowel
- Leap year
- Add digits
- Factorial
- HCF and LCM
- Decimal to binary conversion
- ncR and nPr
- Add n numbers
- Swapping
- Reverse number
- Palindrome number
- Print Pattern
- Diamond
- Prime numbers
- Find armstrong number
- Generate armstrong number
- Fibonacci series
- Print floyd’s triangle
- Print pascal triangle
- Addition using pointers
- Maximum element in array
- Minimum element in array
- Linear search
- Binary search
- Reverse array
- Insert element in array
- Delete element from array
- Merge arrays
- Bubble sort
- Insertion sort
- Selection sort
- Add matrices
- Subtract matrices
- Transpose matrix
- Multiply two matrices
- Print string
- String length
- Compare strings
- Copy string
- Concatenate strings
- Reverse string
- Find palindrome
- Delete vowels
- C substring
- Sort a string
- Remove spaces
- Change case
- Swap strings
- Character’s frequency
- Anagrams
- Read file
- Copy files
- Merge two files
- List files in a directory
- Delete file
- Random numbers
- Add complex numbers
- Print date
- Get IP address
- Shutdown computer

## C hello world example

`#include `

`#include `

```
int void main()
{
printf("Hello world\n");
getch();
}
```

## Hello world program in C using character Array

`#include `

`#include `

```
int main()
{
char string[] = "Hello World";
printf("%s\n", string);
getch();
}
```

# C program print integer

`#include `
int main()
{
int a;
printf("Enter an integer\n");
scanf("%d", &a);
printf("Integer that you have entered is %d\n", a);
return 0;
}

# c program print integer

This program takes an input as integer type and prints it. Input is done using scanf function and number is printed on screen using printf.

## C programming code

`#include `

`# include `

` void main()`

`{`

` int a;`

` printf("Enter an integer\n");`

` scanf("%d", &a);`

` printf("Integer that you have entered is %d\n", a);`

`getch();`

`}`

# C program to add two numbers

C program to add two numbers: This c language program perform the basic arithmetic operation of addition on two numbers and then prints the sum on the screen. For example if the user entered two numbers as 5, 6 then 11 ( 5 + 6 ) will be printed on the screen.

## C programming code

`#include`

`#include`

`Void main()`

`{`

` int a, b, c;`

` printf("Enter two numbers to add\n");`

` scanf("%d%d",&a,&b);`

` c = a + b;`

` printf("Sum of entered numbers = %d\n",c);`

`getch();`

`}`

## Add two nos without using third variable

`#include`

`#include`

`Void main()`

`{`

` int a = 1, b = 2;`

` /* Storing result of addition in variable a */`

` a = a + b;`

` /* Not recommended because original value of a is lost`

` * and you may be using it some where in code considering it`

` * as it was entered by the user.`

` */`

` printf("Sum of a and b = %d\n", a);`

` getch();`

`}`

## C program to add two numbers repeatedly

`#include`

`#include`

`main()`

`{`

` int a, b, c;`

` char ch;`

` while(1)`

` {`

` printf("Enter values of a and b\n");`

` scanf("%d%d",&a,&b);`

` c = a + b;`

` printf("a + b = %d\n", c);`

` printf("Do you wish to add more numbers(y/n)\n");`

` scanf(" %c",&ch);`

` if ( ch == 'y' || ch == 'Y' )`

` continue;`

` else`

` break;`

` }`

`getch();`

`}`

## Adding numbers in c using function

We have used long data type as it can handle large numbers.

`#include`

`#include`

`long addition(long, long);`

`main()`

`{`

` long first, second, sum;`

` scanf("%ld%ld", &first, &second);`

` sum = addition(first, second);`

` printf("%ld\n", sum);`

`getch();`

`}`

`long addition(long a, long b)`

`{`

` long result;`

` result = a + b;`

` return result;`

`}`

# C program to check odd or even

c program to check odd or even: We will determine whether a number is odd or even by using different methods all are provided with a code in c language. As you have study in mathematics that in decimal number system even numbers are divisible by 2 while odd are not so we may use modulus operator(%) which returns remainder, For example 4%3 gives 1 ( remainder when four is divided by three). Even numbers are of the form 2*p and odd are of the form (2*p+1) where p is is an integer.

We can use bitwise AND (&) operator to check odd or even, as an example consider binary of 7 (0111) when we perform 7 & 1 the result will be one and you may observe that the least significant bit of every odd number is 1, so ( odd_number & 1 ) will be one always and also ( even_number & 1 ) is zero.

In c programming language when we divide two integers we get an integer result, For example the result of 7/3 will be 2.So we can take advantage of this and may use it to find whether the number is odd or even. Consider an integer n we can first divide by 2 and then multiply it by 2 if the result is the original number then the number is even otherwise the number is odd. For example 11/2 = 5, 5*2 = 10 ( which is not equal to eleven), now consider 12/2 = 6 and 6 *2 = 12 ( same as original number). These are some logic which may help you in finding if a number is odd or not.

## C program to check odd or even using modulus operator

`#include`

`#include`

`Void main()`

`{`

` int n;`

` printf("Enter an integer\n");`

` scanf("%d",&n);`

` if ( n%2 == 0 )`

` printf("Even\n");`

` else`

` printf("Odd\n");`

` getch();`

` }`

## C program to check odd or even using bitwise operator

`#include`

`#include`

`main()`

`{`

` int n;`

` printf("Enter an integer\n");`

` scanf("%d",&n);`

` if ( n & 1 == 1 )`

` printf("Odd\n");`

` else`

` printf("Even\n");`

` getch();`

`}`

## C program to check odd or even without using bitwise or modulus operator

`#include`

`#include`

`main()`

`{`

` int n;`

` printf("Enter an integer\n");`

` scanf("%d",&n);`

` if ( (n/2)*2 == n )`

` printf("Even\n");`

` else`

` printf("Odd\n");`

` getch();`

`}`

## Find odd or even using conditional operator

`#include`

`#include`

`main()`

`{`

` int n;`

` printf("Enter an integer\n");`

` scanf("%d",&n);`

` n%2 == 0 ? printf("Even number\n") : printf("Odd number\n");`

` getch();`

`}`

# C program to perform addition, subtraction, multiplication and division

C program to perform basic arithmetic operations i.e. addition , subtraction, multiplication and division of two numbers. Numbers are assumed to be integers and will be entered by the user.

## C programming code

`#include `

`#include`

`int main()`

`{`

` int first, second, add, subtract, multiply;`

` float divide;`

` printf("Enter two integers\n");`

` scanf("%d%d", &first, &second);`

` add = first + second;`

` subtract = first - second;`

` multiply = first * second;`

` divide = first / (float)second; //typecasting`

` printf("Sum = %d\n",add);`

` printf("Difference = %d\n",subtract);`

` printf("Multiplication = %d\n",multiply);`

` printf("Division = %.2f\n",divide);`

` getch();`

`}`

In c language when we divide two integers we get integer result for example 5/2 evaluates to 2. As a general rule integer/integer = integer and float/integer = float or integer/float = float. So we convert denominator to float in our program, you may also write float in numerator. This explicit conversion is known as typecasting.

# c program to check whether input alphabet is a vowel or not

This code checks whether an input alphabet is a vowel or not. Both lower-case and upper-case are checked.

## C programming code

`#include `

`#include`

` main()`

`{`

` char ch;`

` printf("Enter a character\n");`

` scanf("%c", &ch);`

` if (ch == 'a' || ch == 'A' || ch == 'e' || ch == 'E' || ch == 'i' || ch == 'I' || ch =='o' || ch=='O' || ch == 'u' || ch == 'U')`

` printf("%c is a vowel.\n", ch);`

` else`

` printf("%c is not a vowel.\n", ch);`

` getch();`

`}`

## Check vowel using switch statement

`#include `

`Void main()`

`{`

` char ch;`

` printf("Enter a character\n");`

` scanf("%c", &ch);`

` switch(ch)`

` {`

` case 'a':`

` case 'A':`

` case 'e':`

` case 'E':`

` case 'i':`

` case 'I':`

` case 'o':`

` case 'O':`

` case 'u':`

` case 'U':`

` printf("%c is a vowel.\n", ch);`

` break;`

` default:`

` printf("%c is not a vowel.\n", ch);`

` }`

` getch();`

` }`

### Function to check vowel

`int check_vowel(char a)`

`{`

` if (a >= 'A' && a `

` a = a + 'a' - 'A'; /* Converting to lower case or use a = a + 32 */`

` if (a == 'a' || a == 'e' || a == 'i' || a == 'o' || a == 'u')`

` return 1;`

` return 0;`

`}`

# c program to check leap year

c program to check leap year: c code to check leap year, year will be entered by the user. Please read theleap year article before reading the code, it will help you to understand the program.

## C programming code

`#include `

`#include `

`int main()`

`{`

` int year;`

` printf("Enter a year to check if it is a leap year\n");`

` scanf("%d", &year);`

` if ( year%400 == 0)`

` printf("%d is a leap year.\n", year);`

` else if ( year%100 == 0)`

` printf("%d is not a leap year.\n", year);`

` else if ( year%4 == 0 )`

` printf("%d is a leap year.\n", year);`

` else`

` printf("%d is not a leap year.\n", year);`

` getch();`

`}`

# add digits of number in c

C program to add digits of a number: Here we are using modulus operator(%) to extract individual digits of number and adding them.

## C programming code

`#include `

`main()`

`{`

` int n, sum = 0, remainder;`

` printf("Enter an integer\n");`

` scanf("%d",&n);`

` while(n != 0)`

` {`

` remainder = n % 10;`

` sum = sum + remainder;`

` n = n / 10;`

` }`

` printf("Sum of digits of entered number = %d\n",sum);`

` return 0;`

`}`

For example if the input is 98, sum(variable) is 0 initially

98%10 = 8 (% is modulus operator which gives us remainder when 98 is divided by 10).

sum = sum + remainder

so sum = 8 now.

98/10 = 9 because in c whenever we divide integer by another integer we get an integer.

9%10 = 9

sum = 8(previous value) + 9

sum = 17

9/10 = 0.

So finally n = 0, loop ends we get the required sum.

Output of program:

## Add digits using recursion

`#include `

`#include`

`int add_digits(int);`

`int main() {`

` int n, result;`

` scanf("%d", &n);`

` result = add_digits(n);`

` printf("%d\n", result);`

` getch();`

`}`

`int add_digits(int n) {`

` static int sum = 0;`

` if (n == 0) {`

` return 0;`

` }`

` sum = n%10 + add_digits(n/10);`

` return sum;`

`}`

# Factorial program in c

Factorial program in c: c code to find and print factorial of a number, three methods are given, first one uses a for loop, second uses a function to find factorial and third using recursion. Factorial is represented using !, so five factorial will be written as 5!, n factorial as n!. Also

n! = n*(n-1)*(n-2)*(n-3)…3.2.1 and zero factorial is defined as one i.e. 0!=1.

## Factorial program in c using for loop

: Here we find factorial using for loop.

`#include `

`#include`

`int main()`

`{`

` int c, n, fact = 1;`

` printf("Enter a number to calculate it's factorial\n");`

` scanf("%d", &n);`

` for (c = 1; c `

` fact = fact * c;`

` printf("Factorial of %d = %d\n", n, fact);`

` getch();`

`}`

Factorial

Output of code:

## Factorial program in c using function

`#include `

`#include `

`long factorial(int);`

`int main()`

`{`

` int number;`

` long fact = 1;`

` printf("Enter a number to calculate it's factorial\n");`

` scanf("%d", &number);`

` printf("%d! = %ld\n", number, factorial(number));`

` return 0;`

`}`

`long factorial(int n)`

`{`

` int c;`

` long result = 1;`

` for (c = 1; c `

` result = result * c;`

` return result;`

`}`

## Factorial program in c using recursion

`#include`

`#include`

`long factorial(int);`

` int main()`

`{`

` int num;`

` long f;`

` printf("Enter a number to find factorial\n");`

` scanf("%d", &num);`

` if (num `

` printf("Negative numbers are not allowed.\n");`

` else`

` {`

` f = factorial(num);`

` printf("%d! = %ld\n", num, f);`

` }`

`getch();`

`}`

`long factorial(int n)`

`{`

` if (n == 0)`

` return 1;`

` else`

` return(n * factorial(n-1));`

`}`

# c program to find hcf and lcm

C program to find hcf and lcm: The code below finds highest common factor and least common multiple of two integers. HCF is also known as greatest common divisor(GCD) or greatest common factor(gcf).

## C programming code

`#include `

`#include`

` int main() {`

` int a, b, x, y, t, gcd, lcm;`

` printf("Enter two integers\n");`

` scanf("%d%d", &x, &y);`

` a = x;`

` b = y;`

` while (b != 0) {`

` t = b;`

` b = a % b;`

` a = t;`

` }`

` gcd = a;`

` lcm = (x*y)/gcd;`

` printf("Greatest common divisor of %d and %d = %d\n", x, y, gcd);`

` printf("Least common multiple of %d and %d = %d\n", x, y, lcm);`

` getch();`

`}`

## C program to find hcf and lcm using recursion

`#include `

`#include`

`long gcd(long, long);`

`int main() {`

` long x, y, hcf, lcm;`

` printf("Enter two integers\n");`

` scanf("%ld%ld", &x, &y);`

` hcf = gcd(x, y);`

` lcm = (x*y)/hcf;`

` printf("Greatest common divisor of %ld and %ld = %ld\n", x, y, hcf);`

` printf("Least common multiple of %ld and %ld = %ld\n", x, y, lcm);`

` getch();`

`}`

`long gcd(long a, long b) {`

` if (b == 0) {`

` return a;`

` }`

` else {`

` return gcd(b, a % b);`

` }`

`}`

## C program to find hcf and lcm using function

`#include `

`#include`

`long gcd(long, long);`

`int main() {`

` long x, y, hcf, lcm;`

` printf("Enter two integers\n");`

` scanf("%ld%ld", &x, &y);`

` hcf = gcd(x, y);`

` lcm = (x*y)/hcf;`

` printf("Greatest common divisor of %ld and %ld = %ld\n", x, y, hcf);`

` printf("Least common multiple of %ld and %ld = %ld\n", x, y, lcm);`

` getch();`

`}`

` long gcd(long x, long y) {`

` if (x == 0) {`

` return y;`

` }`

` while (y != 0) {`

` if (x > y) {`

` x = x - y;`

` }`

` else {`

` y = y - x;`

` }`

` }`

` return x;`

`}`

# Decimal to binary conversion

C program to convert decimal to binary: c language code to convert an integer from decimal number system(base-10) to binary number system(base-2). Size of integer is assumed to be 32 bits. We use bitwise operators to perform the desired task. We right shift the original number by 31, 30, 29, …, 1, 0 bits using a loop and bitwise AND the number obtained with 1(one), if the result is 1 then that bit is 1 otherwise it is 0(zero).

## C programming code

`#include `

`#include `

` int main()`

`{`

` int n, c, k;`

` printf("Enter an integer in decimal number system\n");`

` scanf("%d", &n);`

` printf("%d in binary number system is:\n", n);`

` for (c = 31; c >= 0; c--)`

` {`

` k = n >> c;`

` if (k & 1)`

` printf("1");`

` else`

` printf("0");`

` }`

` printf("\n");`

` return 0;`

`}`

Above code only prints binary of integer, but we may wish to perform operations on binary so in the code below we are storing the binary in a string. We create a function which returns a pointer to string which is the binary of the number passed as argument to the function.

## C programm to store decimal to binary conversion in a string

`#include `

`#include `

`#include`

`char *decimal_to_binary(int);`

` main()`

`{`

` int n, c, k;`

` char *pointer;`

` printf("Enter an integer in decimal number system\n");`

` scanf("%d",&n);`

` pointer = decimal_to_binary(n);`

` printf("Binary string of %d is: %s\n", n, t);`

` free(pointer);`

` getch();`

`}`

`char *decimal_to_binary(int n)`

`{`

` int c, d, count;`

` char *pointer;`

` count = 0;`

` pointer = (char*)malloc(32+1);`

` if ( pointer == NULL )`

` exit(EXIT_FAILURE);`

` for ( c = 31 ; c >= 0 ; c-- )`

` {`

` d = n >> c;`

` if ( d & 1 )`

` *(pointer+count) = 1 + '0';`

` else`

` *(pointer+count) = 0 + '0';`

` count++;`

` }`

` *(pointer+count) = '\0';`

` return pointer;`

`}`

# c program to find ncr and npr

c program to find nCr and nPr: This code calculate nCr which is n!/(r!*(n-r)!) and nPr = n!/(n-r)!

## C program to find nCr using function

`#include`

`#include`

`long factorial(int);`

`long find_ncr(int, int);`

`long find_npr(int, int);`

`main()`

`{`

` int n, r;`

` long ncr, npr;`

` printf("Enter the value of n and r\n");`

` scanf("%d%d",&n,&r);`

` ncr = find_ncr(n, r);`

` npr = find_npr(n, r);`

` printf("%dC%d = %ld\n", n, r, ncr);`

` printf("%dP%d = %ld\n", n, r, npr);`

` getch();`

`}`

`long find_ncr(int n, int r)`

`{`

` long result;`

` result = factorial(n)/(factorial(r)*factorial(n-r));`

` return result;`

`}`

`long find_npr(int n, int r)`

`{`

` long result;`

` result = factorial(n)/factorial(n-r);`

` return result;`

`}`

`long factorial(int n)`

`{`

` int c;`

` long result = 1;`

` for( c = 1 ; c `

` result = result*c;`

` return ( result );`

`}`

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